Metchnikoff , Elie

Metchnikoff , Elie
(1845–1916) Russian–French zoologist and cytologist
Metchnikoff was born at Ivanovka near Kharkov (now in Ukraine) and educated at Kharkov University. After holding posts under Rudolf Leuckart at Göttingen and Giessen, and under Karl Siebold at Munich, he taught zoology at Odessa and St. Petersburg. From 1873 to 1882 he was professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Odessa.
He spent the years 1882–86 at Messina in Italy where, working on starfish larvae, he first noticed that certain nondigestive cells enclose and engulf foreign particles introduced into the body. These cells he called phagocytes and, extending his studies, he demonstrated that they also occur in humans – they are the white blood corpuscles. He realized that they are important in the body's defenses against disease, in engulfing bacteria and other foreign bodies in the blood. These advances were outlined in such publications as Intra-Cellular Digestion (1882), The Comparative Pathology of Inflammation (1892), and Immunity in Infectious Diseases (1905). For his work on phagocytosis, Metchnikoff was awarded, in 1908, the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine jointly with Paul Ehrlich.
In 1886 Metchnikoff was appointed director of the new bacteriological institute at Odessa; two years later he went to the Pasteur Institute in Paris, which he directed from 1895 to 1916, succeeding Pasteur himself.
In 1903 Metchnikoff succeeded, with Emile Roux, in transferring syphilis to apes. He also did research on cholera. His later years were largely concerned with a study of the aging factors in humans and means of inducing longevity – discussed in The Nature of Man (1904) and The Prolongation of Human Life(1910).

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • METCHNIKOFF, ELIE — (1845–1916), Russian biologist, born at Ivanovka, near Kharkov. Metchnikoff s father was an officer of the Imperial Guard; his mother was Jewish (her family name was Neakovich). After graduating from the University of Kharkov he went to Germany… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Metchnikoff, Élie — orig. Ilya Ilich Mechnikov born May 16, 1845, near Kharkov, Ukraine, Russian Empire died July 16, 1916, Paris, France Russian zoologist and microbiologist. In 1888 Louis Pasteur offered him a post at the Pasteur Institute, and he succeeded… …   Universalium

  • Metchnikoff, Elie — (1845–1916)    Russian bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, 1908. Metchnikoff, whose mother was Jewish, was a professor at the University of Odessa but the Jewish persecution of the 1880s forced him to resign. He settled in Messina, Italy, where he …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Metchnikoff,Elie — Metch·ni·koff also Metch·ni·kov (mĕchʹnĭ kôf , myĕchʹnĭ kəf), Elie. 1845 1916. Russian zoologist. He shared a 1908 Nobel Prize for discoveries and advances in immunology. * * * …   Universalium

  • Metchnikoff, Elie — (1845 1916)    Russian scientist. He was a professor at the University of Odessa, but left Russia due to the pogroms of the 1880s. He settled in Messina, Italy where he studied marine life. In 1888 he went to Paris to work with Louis Pasteur.… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Elie Metchnikov — noun Russian bacteriologist in France who formulated the theory of phagocytosis (1845 1916) • Syn: ↑Metchnikoff, ↑Elie Metchnikoff, ↑Metchnikov, ↑Ilya Ilich Metchnikov • Instance Hypernyms: ↑bacteriologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Metchnikoff Point — (64°3′S 62°34′W / 64.05°S 62.567°W / 64.05; 62.567) is a point forming the west extremity of Pasteur Peninsula in northern Brabant Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. First …   Wikipedia

  • Metchnikoff — (Ilia Ilitch Metchnikov, dit élie) (1845 1916) microbiologiste russe. à Paris, il collabora avec Pasteur. Il découvrit la phagocytose (1884). P. Nobel de médecine 1908 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Metchnikoff — [mech′ni kôf΄] Élie [ā lē′] (Russ. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov) 1845 1916; Russ. biologist & bacteriologist, in France …   English World dictionary

  • Metchnikoff — Elie, Russian biologist in Paris and Nobel laureate, 1845–1916. See M. theory …   Medical dictionary