- Kuiper , Gerard Peter
- (1905–1973) Dutch–American astronomerBorn at Harenkarspel in the Netherlands, Kuiper studied at the University of Leiden, where he obtained his BSc in 1927 and his PhD in 1933. He immediately emigrated to America where he took up an appointment at the Lick Observatory in California and then lectured (1935–36) at Harvard. In 1936 he joined the Yerkes Observatory and in 1939 moved to the McDonald Observatory in Texas, both run by the University of Chicago. He served as their director (1947–49, 1957–60) and was also professor of astronomy (1943–60). From 1960 to 1973 he was head of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory of the University of Arizona.Kuiper's main research work was on the solar system. He discovered two new satellites: Miranda, the fifth Uranian satellite in 1948 and Nereid, the second Neptunian satellite in 1949. He also investigated planetary atmospheres and succeeded in detecting carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere in 1948. Four years earlier he had found evidence of methane in the atmosphere of Saturn's largest satellite, Titan.In 1950 he produced some intriguing data on Pluto. Based on observations made with the 200-inch (5-m) reflector at the Palomar Observatory he estimated the diameter of Pluto as 0.23 seconds of arc, which was equivalent to about 3600 miles (5800km) or half the Earth's diameter. But as its mass was supposed to be roughly the same as that of the Earth it implied the unlikely conclusion that Pluto had a density of about ten times that of the Earth. Recent measurements, however, reveal that Pluto's mass is only 0.2% and its diameter roughly a quarter of Earth's. Kuiper also speculated on the origin of the planets and proposed in 1949 his theory that each planet evolved from its own gaseous cloud that was not initially part of the Sun. This is not generally accepted.With the advent of the space age, Kuiper became closely involved with several space missions, including the Ranger program, 1961–65, in which the first close-up photographs of the Moon were obtained, and the Mariner 10 flight to Venus and Mercury, which was launched in 1973 shortly before his death.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Kuiper, Gerard Peter — ▪ American astronomer original name Gerrit Pieter Kuiper born Dec. 7, 1905, Harenkarspel, Neth. died Dec. 23, 1973, Mexico City, Mexico Dutch American astronomer known especially for his discoveries and theories concerning the solar… … Universalium
Kuiper, Gerard Peter — ► (1905 73) Astrónomo estadounidense. Autor de un estudio de las atmósferas de los planetas, la estructura del sistema solar y la geografía lunar, y un atlas de la Luna … Enciclopedia Universal
Gerard Peter Kuiper — Gerard P. Kuiper Gerard Peter Kuiper, eigentlich Gerrit Pieter Kuiper (* 7. Dezember 1905 in Harenkarspel; † 24. Dezember 1973 in Mexiko Stadt) war ein US amerikanischer Astronom niederländischer Herkunft. Kuiper war das ält … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gerard Peter Kuiper — Gerard Kuiper Pour les articles homonymes, voir Kuiper. Gerard Kuiper en 1963 Gerard Peter Kuiper, né sous le nom Gerrit Pieter Kuiper (7 décembre … Wikipédia en Français
Gerard Peter Kuiper — noun United States astronomer (born in the Netherlands) who studied the solar system and suggested in 1951 that there is a belt of comet like debris at the edge of the solar system (1905 1973) • Syn: ↑Kuiper, ↑Gerard Kuiper • Instance Hypernyms:… … Useful english dictionary
Kuiper — Kuiper, Gerard Peter … Enciclopedia Universal
Gerard Kuiper — Gerard P. Kuiper Gerard Peter Kuiper, eigentlich Gerrit Pieter Kuiper (* 7. Dezember 1905 in Harenkarspel; † 23. Dezember 1973 in Mexiko Stadt) war ein US amerikanischer Astronom niederländischer Herkunft. Kuiper war das älteste von vier Kindern … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kuiper belt — [kī′pər] n. 〚after G. P. Kuiper (1905 73), U.S. astronomer〛 a belt of icy debris orbiting in the outer solar system, thought to be the source of many comets * * * or Edgeworth Kuiper belt Disk shaped belt of billions of small, icy bodies orbiting … Universalium
Kuiper (Asteroid) — Asteroid (1776) Kuiper Eigenschaften des Orbits (P L;orb=1 Simulation) Orbittyp Hauptgürtelasteroid Große Halbachse 3,1033 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kuiper — noun United States astronomer (born in the Netherlands) who studied the solar system and suggested in 1951 that there is a belt of comet like debris at the edge of the solar system (1905 1973) • Syn: ↑Gerard Kuiper, ↑Gerard Peter Kuiper •… … Useful english dictionary