Hubel , David Hunter

Hubel , David Hunter
(1926–) Canadian–American neurophysiologist
Born in Windsor, Ontario, Hubel was educated at McGill University and then worked at the Montreal Neurological Institute. He moved to America in 1954 and after working at Johns Hopkins joined the Harvard Medical School in 1959 where he was appointed professor of neurobiology from 1968 to 1982.
Beginning in the 1960s, Hubel, in collaboration with the Swedish neurophysiologist Torsten Wiesel (1924––sp;–sp;), published a number of remarkable papers that explained for the first time the mechanism of visual perception at the cortical level.
Their work was made possible by a number of technical advances. From the early 1950s onward it became possible to use microelectrodes to monitor the activity of a single neuron. Further, the work of Louis Sokoloff allowed workers to identify precise areas of neural activity. Using this latter technique it was thus possible to identify the region known as the striate cortex, located at the back of the cortex in the occipital lobes, as one of the key centers of activity during the visual process.
The cells of the striate cortex seemed to be arranged into columns, or ‘hypercolumns’ as they were soon described, that run the length of the cortex (3–4 millimeters) from the outer surface to the underlying white matter. Such hypercolumns were further clearly divided into distinct layers. Hubel and Weisel went on to probe the structure, function, and contents of such columns in great detail.
Above all they succeeded in establishing two crucial points. First that the retinal image was mapped in some way on to the striate cortex. That is, to each point on the retina there corresponded a group of cells in the striate cortex that would respond to a stimulation of that point and of no other.
Furthermore, the response could be evoked only by a relatively precise stimulus. Thus there were cells that would respond to a spot of light but not to a line. Cells that responded to lines would do so only to those lines with a specific tilt and if the angle of tilt was changed by as little as 10°, in either direction, the cells' ability to react would be diminished or even abolished.
As a result of such work the visual cortex has become the best known of all cortical regions. Hubel and Wiesel shared the 1981 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Roger Sperry.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Hubel, David Hunter — ▪ American biologist born Feb. 27, 1926, Windsor, Ont., Can.       Canadian born American neurobiologist, corecipient with Torsten Nils Wiesel (Wiesel, Torsten Nils) and Roger Wolcott Sperry (Sperry, Roger Wolcott) of the 1981 Nobel Prize for… …   Universalium

  • Hubel, David (Hunter) — born Feb. 27, 1926, Windsor, Ont., Can. Canadian born U.S. neurobiologist. He studied medicine at McGill University and in 1959 joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School. In 1981 he shared a Nobel Prize with Torsten Wiesel and Roger Sperry for …   Universalium

  • Hubel, David (Hunter) — (n. 27 feb. 1926, Windsor, Ontario, Canadá). Neurobiólogo estadounidense nacido en Canadá. Estudió medicina en la Universidad McGill y en 1959 se incorporó a la facultad del Harvard Medical School. En 1981 compartió el Premio Nobel con Torsten… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • David Hunter Hubel — (* 27. Februar 1926 in Windsor, Ontario, Kanada) ist ein kanadisch/US amerikanischer Neurobiologe. Hubel ist Professor für Neurobiologie an der Harvard Medical School in Cambridge (Boston), Massachusetts. 1981 erhielt er zusammen mit Torsten N.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • David Hunter Hubel — (27 février 1926, à Windsor, Ontario, Canada) est un neurobiologiste américano canadien. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Travaux 3 Honneurs …   Wikipédia en Français

  • David Hunter Hubel — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda David Hunter Hubel (1926 ), nació en Windsor Canadá. Estudia en la Universidad McGill en Montreal, se doctora en Medicina en 1951. Trabaja inicialmente en el Instituto de Neurología de Montreal y posteriormente en la …   Wikipedia Español

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1981: Roger Wolcott Sperry — David Hunter Hubel — Torsten Nils Wiesel —   Die Amerikaner und der Schwede teilten sich den Nobelpreis für »Entdeckungen zur funktionellen Spezialisierung der Gehirnhemisphären« und für »Entdeckungen über Informationsbearbeitung im Sehwahrnehmungssystem«.    Biografien   Roger Wolcott… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Hubel — David Hunter …   Scientists

  • David H. Hubel — David Hunter Hubel David Hunter Hubel (né le 27 février 1926, à Windsor au Canada) est un neurobiologiste américain. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Travaux 3 Honneurs …   Wikipédia en Français

  • David Hubel — David Hunter Hubel David Hunter Hubel (né le 27 février 1926, à Windsor au Canada) est un neurobiologiste américain. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Travaux 3 Honneurs …   Wikipédia en Français