Hofstadter , Robert

Hofstadter , Robert
(1915–1990) American physicist
A New Yorker by birth, Hofstadter graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1935 and gained his MA and PhD at Princeton University in 1938. From 1939 he held a fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1941 returned to the College of the City of New York as an instructor in physics. From 1943 to 1946 Hofstadter worked at the Norden Laboratory Corporation, and from there took on an assistant professorship in physics at Princeton University. In 1950 he moved to Standford University as an associate professor and was made full professor in 1954.
His early research was in the fields of infrared spectroscopy, the hydrogen bond, and photoconductivity. One of his first notable achievements, in 1948, was the invention of a scintillation counter using sodium iodide activated with thallium. He is noted for his studies of the atomic nucleus, for which he received the 1961 Nobel Prize for physics (shared with Rudolph Mössbauer).
At Stanford, Hofstadter used the linear accelerator to study the scattering effects of high electrons fired at atomic nuclei. In many ways these experiments were similar in concept to Rutherford's original scattering experiments. He found that the distribution of charge density in the nucleus was constant in the core, and then decreased sharply at a peripheral region. The radial distribution of charge was found to vary in a mathematical relationship that depended upon the nuclear mass. Further, Hofstadter was able to show that nucleons (protons and neutrons) were not simply point particles, but had definite size and form. Both appeared to be composed of charged mesonic clouds (or shells) with the charges adding together in the proton, but canceling each other out in the neutral neutron. This led him to predict the existence of the rho-meson and omega-meson, which were later detected.
Hofstadter served as director of the high-energy physics laboratory at Stanford from 1967 to 1974.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • HOFSTADTER, ROBERT — (1915–1990), U.S. physicist and Nobel Prize winner. Born in New York, Hofstadter earned his master s and doctorate degrees at Princeton; he also taught there and at City College, New York, where he had taken his B.S. degree. During World War II… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hofstadter, Robert — ▪ American physicist born Feb. 5, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Nov. 17, 1990, Stanford, Calif.       American scientist who was a joint recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1961 for his investigations of protons (proton) and neutrons… …   Universalium

  • Hofstadter, Robert — (1915–90)    US physicist and Nobel laureate, 1961. As professor of physics at Stanford University Hofstadter studied the effects of bombarding atomic nuclei with the high energy electrons produced by an accelerator. His work threw light on the… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Hofstadter,Robert — Hof·stadt·er (hŏfʹstătʹər), Robert. 1915 1990. American physicist. He shared a 1961 Nobel Prize for determining the structure of protons and neutrons. * * * …   Universalium

  • Hofstadter, Robert — (1915 90)    American physicist. He was professor of physics at Stanford University. He studied the effects of bombarding atomic nuclei with electrons. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1961 …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Hofstadter, Robert — ► (1915 90) Físico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1961, compartido con R. Mössbauer, por sus estudios sobre los protones y neutrones existentes en el núcleo atómico …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Robert Hofstadter — (5 février 1915 à New York 17 novembre 1990) est un physicien américain. Il est un des deux lauréats du prix Nobel de physique de 1961 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Hofstadter — Robert Hofstadter, 1961 Robert Hofstadter (* 5. Februar 1915 in New York City; † 17. November 1990 in Stanford/Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker. Er erhielt den Nobelpreis für Physik 1961, zusammen mit R …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Hofstadter — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Retrato de 1961. Robert Hofstadter (Nueva York, 5 de febrero de 1915 †Stanford, 17 de noviembre de 1990) fue un físico estadounidense. Compartió con Rudolph L. Mössbauer el Premio Nobel de Física de 1961 por «sus… …   Wikipedia Español