Hevelius , Johannes

Hevelius , Johannes
(1611–1687) German astronomer
Hevelius was the son of a prosperous brewer from Danzig (now Gdańsk in Poland). He followed his father in the family business as well as devoting himself to civic duties. After studying in Leiden, he established his own observatory on the rooftops of several houses overlooking the Vistula, an observatory which soon gained him an international reputation.
He published several major works of observational astronomy. Four years' telescopic study of the Moon, using telescopes of long focal power, led to his Selenographia (1647; Pictures of the Moon). Making his own engravings of the Moon's surface he assigned names to the lunar mountains, craters, and plains taken from the Earth placing, with what the writer Sir Thomas Browne called witty congruity, “…the Mediterranean Sea, Mauritania, Sicily, and Asia Minor in the Moon.” This system of naming, apart from the Alps, did not survive long, Giovanni Riccioli's alternative system of scientific eponomy being preferred. Hevelius's star catalog Prodromus astronomiae (Guide to Astronomy) was published posthumously in 1690.
Hevelius is today best remembered for his ‘aerial’ telescopes of enormous focal length and his rejection of telescopic sights for stellar observation and positional measurement. He was widely criticized for the latter eccentricity and in 1679 was paid a famous visit by Edmond Halley who had been instructed by Robert Hooke and John Flamsteed to persuade him of the advantages of the new telescopic sights. Hevelius claimed he could do as well with his quadrant and alidade. Halley tested him thoroughly, finding to his surprise that Hevelius could measure both consistently and accurately. He is therefore the last astronomer to do major observational work without a telescope.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Hevelius, Johannes — ▪ Polish astronomer (Latin), German  Johann Hewel , or  Johann Howelcke , Polish  Jan Heweliusz  born Jan. 28, 1611, Gdańsk, Pol. died Jan. 28, 1687, Gdańsk       astronomer who compiled an atlas of the Moon (Selenographia, published 1647)… …   Universalium

  • Hevelius, Johannes — nome lat. di Höwelke, Johannes …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Hevelius, Johannes — ► (1611 87) Astrónomo alemán. Estudió el movimiento de las manchas solares, la órbita de Mercurio y los cráteres de la Luna …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hevelius — Hevelius, Johannes …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Johannes Hevelius — Johannes Hevelius, Daniel Schultz (1615–1683) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hevelius — Johannes Hevelius Johannes Hevelius Johannes Hevelius, Johann Hewelke ou Johannes Hewel (en allemand) ou Jan Heweliusz (en polonais), né à Gdansk le 28 janvier 1611 et mort le 28 janvier 1687 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Johannes Hevelius — Johannes Hevelius, Johann Hewelke ou Johannes Hewel (en allemand) ou Jan Heweliusz (en polonais), né dans la ville hanséatique de Dantzig (Gdansk) le 28 janvier 1611 et mort le 28 janvier  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Johannes Hevelius — Johannes Hevelius. Johannes Hevelius, forma latinizada de Jan Heweliusz (28 de enero de 1611–28 de enero de 1687), fue un astrónomo de Polonia. Ha sido llamado el padre de la topografía lunar. Hevelius nació en Danzig (hoy Gdansk), una ciudad… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Hevelius — ist der Name von Elisabetha Hevelius (1647–1693), Astronomin; Ehefrau von Johannes Hevelius Johannes Hevelius (auch: Johannes Hevel, Johann Hewelcke oder Jan Heweliusz; 1611–1687), deutscher Astronom Siehe auch: Heweliusz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hevelius — Hevelius,   Johannes, eigentlich Hewel, auch Havelke, Hevelke oder Hewelke, Hewelcke, Astronom und Instrumentenbauer, * Danzig 28. 1. 1611, ✝ ebenda 28. 1. 1687; Ratsherr (1651) von Danzig …   Universal-Lexikon