- Haldane , John Scott
- (1860–1936) British physiologistHaldane, the son of a lawyer, was educated at the university in his native city of Edinburgh, where he obtained his MD in 1884. He worked first at the University of Dundee but moved to Oxford to assist his uncle, John Burdon-Sanderson, the professor of physiology in 1887. Haldane was made reader in physiology in 1907 but resigned in 1913 to become director of the Mining Research Laboratory, initially sited in Doncaster but transferred to Birmingham in 1921.From the beginning of his career Haldane sought to apply the results of physiological research to the solution of practical social and industrial problems. He was much concerned with problems of ventilation in mines and in 1896 published an important report, Causes of Death in Colliery Explosions. He was struck by the fact that in a serious explosion in 1896 only 4 out of 57 miners died from the blast and its effects, the vast majority succumbing to carbon monoxide poisoning. Haldane recommended the simple and effective safety procedure of taking mice down the pit: with their higher metabolic rate they would show the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning long before it reached levels dangerous to man.He also worked for the admiralty on the problems faced by their divers at high pressures. It had been known for some time that rapid decompression produced the liberation of nitrogen bubbles into the bloodstream, with crippling and often lethal effects. Haldane showed how such effects could be minimized by pointing out that however long a diver had been exposed to compressed air it was always safe to halve the pressure; that is, it is just as safe to ascend from six to three atmospheres as from two to one. Using his technique over £5,000,000 of gold was recovered from the wreck of the Lusitania between 1917 and 1924.Haldane also investigated the response of the human body to high temperatures. Haldane's main work as a pure physiologist, however, was on the mechanism of respiration. In 1906 he published his most significant paper, in collaboration with John Priestley, which demonstrated the key role of carbon dioxide in the regulation of breathing. They showed that it was not a deficiency in oxygen that triggers the respiratory reflex but an excess of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood, acting on the respiratory center in the midbrain. Their work was published in full in Respiration (1935; 2nd edition).In much of his work Haldane used for an experimental subject his precocious son J.B.S. Haldane, later to become one of the leading biologists of the 20th century.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
Look at other dictionaries:
Haldane, John Scott — born May 3, 1860, Edinburgh, Scot. died March 14/15, 1936, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng. British physiologist and philosopher. He developed procedures for studying the physiology of breathing and of the blood and devices for measuring hemoglobin and… … Universalium
Haldane, John Scott — (3 may. 1860, Edimburgo, Escocia–14/15 mar. 1936, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Inglaterra). Fisiólogo y filósofo británico. Elaboró procedimientos para estudiar la fisiología de la respiración y de la sangre e instrumentos para medir la hemoglobina y… … Enciclopedia Universal
John Scott Haldane — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Haldane. John Scott Haldane (3 mai 1860 15 mars 1936) était un physiologiste irlandais spécialisé dans la respiration. Biographie Haldane était le fils de Robert Haldane, et son grand père un évangéliste… … Wikipédia en Français
John Scott Haldane — CH (May 3 1860 ndash; March 14/March 15 1936) was a Scottish physiologist famous for intrepid self experimenting which led to many important discoveries about the human body and the nature of gases.cite journal |last=Acott |first=C. |title=JS… … Wikipedia
John Scott Haldane — (3 de mayo de 1860 15 de marzo de 1936) fue un filósofo y biólogo británico. Obra John Scott Haldane se opuso al mecanicismo y defendió la irreductibilidad de los fenómenos teleológicos (adaptación y regulación fisiológica) que aparecen en el… … Wikipedia Español
John Scott Haldane — Familienstammbaum John Scott Haldane (* 3. Mai 1860 in Edinburgh; † 15. März 1936 in Oxford) war ein schottischer Physiologe und gilt als Begründer des methodischen Holismus … Deutsch Wikipedia
Haldane , John Burdon Sanderson — (1892–1964) British geneticist Haldane, who was born at Oxford, became involved in scientific research at an early age through helping in the laboratory of his father, the physiologist John Scott Haldane. His interest in genetics was first… … Scientists
John Scott Haldane — noun Scottish physiologist and brother of Richard Haldane and Elizabeth Haldane; noted for research into industrial diseases (1860 1936) • Syn: ↑Haldane, ↑John Haldane • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist … Useful english dictionary
John Burdon Sanderson Haldane — John Burdon Sanderson Haldane. Familienstammbaum John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (* 5. November 1892 in Edinburgh; † 1. Dezember … Deutsch Wikipedia
Scott — Scott, David Scott, Robert Falcon Scott, Walter * * * (as used in expressions) James Scott Connors Dred Scott, sentencia Dred Scott v. Sandford Fitzgerald, F(rancis) Scott (Key) Forester, C(ecil) S(cott) Haldane, John Scott Hancock, Winfield… … Enciclopedia Universal