- Haber , Fritz
- (1868–1934) German physical chemistHaber, the son of a merchant, was born at Breslau, now Wrocław in Poland. He was educated at Berlin, Heidelberg, Charlottenburg, and Jena, and in 1894 he became an assistant in physical chemistry at the Technical Institute, Karlsruhe, where he remained until 1911, being promoted to a professorship in 1906. He moved to Berlin in 1911 to become director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physical Chemistry. Though an intensely patriotic German he was also a Jew and with the rise of anti-Semitism he resigned his post in 1933 and went into exile in England, where he worked at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. He died in Basel en route to Italy.Haber is noted for his discovery of the industrial process for synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The need at the time was for nitrogen compounds for use as fertilizers – most plants cannot utilize free nitrogen from the air, and need ‘fixed’ nitrogen. The main source was deposits of nitrate salts in Chile, but these would have a limited life.Haber, in an attempt to solve this problem, began investigating the reaction: N2 + 3H2⇌ 2NH3Under normal conditions the yield is very low. Haber (1907–09) showed that practical yields could be achieved at high temperatures (250°C) and pressures (250 atmospheres) using a catalyst (iron is the catalyst now used). The process was developed industrially by Carl Bosch around 1913 and is still the main industrial method for the fixation of nitrogen. Haber received the Nobel Prize for chemistry for this work in 1918.During World War I, Haber turned his efforts to helping Germany's war effort. In particular he directed the use of poisonous gas. After the war he tried, unsuccessfully, to repay the indemnities imposed on Germany by a process for extracting gold from seawater.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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HABER, FRITZ — (1868–1934), German physical chemist and Nobel laureate. Haber was born in Breslau, the son of a prosperous chemical and dye merchant and an alderman of the city. After a period in industry and business, he went in 1893 to the Technische… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Haber, Fritz — born Dec. 9, 1868, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia died Jan. 29, 1934, Basel, Switz. German physical chemist. After early research in electrochemistry and thermodynamics, he developed, with his brother in law Carl Bosch (1874–1940), the Haber Bosch… … Universalium
Haber, Fritz — (1868 1934) chemist; awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. Born in Breslau (now Wroclaw), he studied chemistry to better assist his father s dyestuff firm. His aptitude led, however, to a… … Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik
Haber, Fritz — (1868–1934) German chemist and Nobel laureate, 1918. Haber developed a process for synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen by combining them under pressure, using iron as a catalyst. The Haber process, as it was called, was adapted for … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Haber,Fritz — Ha·ber (häʹbər), Fritz. 1868 1934. German chemist. He won a 1918 Nobel Prize for the synthetic production of ammonia. * * * … Universalium
Haber, Fritz — ► (1868 1934) Químico alemán. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1918, compartido con Bosch, por idear un proceso para la obtención del amoniaco. * * * (9 dic. 1868, Breslau, Silesia, Prusia–29 ene. 1934, Basilea, Suiza). Fisicoquímico alemán.… … Enciclopedia Universal
Haber, Fritz — (1868 1934) German physical chemist. Born in Breslau, he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Research Institute for Chemistry in 1911. He gained the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
Haber — Fritz … Scientists
Fritz Haber — Fritz Haber, 1918 Fritz Haber (* 9. Dezember 1868 in Breslau; † 29. Januar 1934 in Basel) war ein deutscher Chemiker und Pionier der chemischen Kriegsführung. Haber erhielt 1919 den Nobelpreis für Chemie des Jahres 1918 „für die Synthese von … Deutsch Wikipedia
Fritz-Haber-Institut — der Max Planck Gesellschaft Eingang Fritz Haber Institut mit Inschrift Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie Kategorie: Forschungseinrichtung Träger: Max Planck Gesellschaft Re … Deutsch Wikipedia