Guericke , Otto von

Guericke , Otto von
(1602–1686) German physicist and engineer
Guericke, who was born in Magdeburg, Germany, trained in law and mathematics before becoming an engineer in the army of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. After the Thirty Years' War he returned to Magdeburg as mayor, there carrying out numerous dramatic experiments on vacuums and the power of the atmosphere.
In 1650 Guericke constructed the first air pump by modifying a water pump. He used this device to create a vacuum in various containers and performed a number of novel experiments. Guericke was the first to show that sound would not travel in a vacuum, and furthermore that a vacuum would not support combustion or animal life. In 1654 Guericke gave an impressive demonstration in front of the emperor Ferdinand III, of the force of atmospheric pressure. Two identical copper hemispheres 12 feet (3.66 m) in diameter were joined together. When the air was pumped out, 16 horses could not pull them apart although when the air reentered the hemispheres they fell apart by themselves. He also showed that 20 men could not hold a piston in a cylinder once the air had been evacuated from one end of it. The results of these and other experiments were published in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio (1672; New Magdeburg Experiments Concerning Empty Space). In 1663 he built the first electrical friction machine by rotating a sulfur globe against a cloth.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Guericke, Otto von — ▪ Prussian physicist, engineer, and philosopher born Nov. 20, 1602, Magdeburg, Prussian Saxony [now in Germany] died May 11, 1686, Hamburg  German physicist, engineer, and natural philosopher who invented the first air pump and used it to study… …   Universalium

  • Guericke, Otto von — ► (1602 86) Físico, jurista y matemático alemán. Fue el creador de la primera máquina electrostática e inventor de la máquina neumática …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • GUERICKE, OTTO VON —    a German physicist, born at Magdeburg; experimented on air, and invented the air pump (1602 1686) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • GUERICKE (O. von) — GUERICKE OTTO VON (1602 1686) Physicien allemand, né à Magdeburg et mort à Hambourg. Otto de Guericke, bourgmestre de Magdeburg, se signale à l’attention du monde savant, peu après 1650, par ses expériences sur le vide et sur l’électricité, bien… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Otto von Guericke — Otto von Guericke, engraving by Anselmus von Hulle, (1601 1674) Born …   Wikipedia

  • Otto von Guericke — Das Porträt von Anselm van Hulle befindet sich im Schloss Gripsholm (Schweden) Otto von Guericke (Aussprache: Gericke [ˈgeːʁɪkə]) (* 20. Novemberjul./ 30. November  …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Otto von guericke — Otto von Guericke [ˈgeʁike] (né le 20 novembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Otto von Guericke — [ˈgeʁike], né le 20 novembre 1602 à Magdebourg et …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Otto von Guericke — Otto von Guericke. Otto von Guericke, físico alemán (Magdeburgo, 20 de noviembre de 1602 – Hamburgo, 21 de mayo de 1686). Estudió derecho en las universidades de Leipzig y Jena. Luego se dedicó a los estudios de matemática en la universidad de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität — Vorlage:Infobox Hochschule/Mitarbeiter fehlt Otto von Guericke Universität Magdeburg Gründung 1993 Trägerschaft Land Sachsen Anhalt …   Deutsch Wikipedia