- Fleming , Sir Alexander
- (1881–1955) British bacteriologistFleming was born at Lochfield in Scotland. After his early education at Kilmarnock Academy and the London Polytechnic Institute, he began his career at the age of 16 as a shipping clerk in a London office. With encouragement from his brother, who was a doctor, he became a medical student at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in 1902 and graduated from the University of London in 1908. He worked at St. Mary's all his life apart from 1914–18, when he served in the Royal Army Medical Corps. During this time he became interested in the control of wound infections and was a vigorous supporter of the physiological treatment of wounds rather than treatment using harsh chemicals, such as carbolic acid. In the 1920s he studied various body secretions and their effects on bacteria. Thus he discovered lysozyme, a bacteriolytic enzyme that is present in serum, saliva, and tears, publishing his findings in 1922.In 1928 Fleming was appointed professor of bacteriology and in the same year he made his most important discovery. After accidentally leaving a dish of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered, Fleming noticed certain clear areas in the culture. He found these areas were due to contamination by a mold he identified asPenicillium notatum, which produced a substance that killed the bacteria. Fleming named this substance ‘penicillin’ and tested the bactericidal effect of the mold on various different bacteria, observing that it killed some but not others. He appreciated the potential of his discovery but was unable to isolate and identify the compound. It was not until World War II, with the urgent need for new antibacterial drugs, that penicillin – the first antibiotic – was finally isolated by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain.Fleming was awarded the 1945 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine jointly with Florey and Chain for his discovery, which initiated a whole new range of lifesaving antibiotics. He received a knighthood in 1944 and many other honors.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Fleming,Sir Alexander — Fleming, Sir Alexander. 1881 1955. British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928, for which he shared a Nobel Prize in 1945. * * * … Universalium
Fleming, Sir Alexander — born Aug. 6, 1881, Lochfield, Ayr, Scot. died March 11, 1955, London, Eng. Scottish bacteriologist. While serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps in World War I, he conducted research on antibacterial substances that would be nontoxic to humans.… … Universalium
Fleming, Sir Alexander — (6 ago. 1881 Lochfield, Ayr, Escocia–11 mar. 1955, Londres, Inglaterra). Bacteriólogo escocés. Mientras servía en el Cuerpo Médico del Ejército Real durante la primera guerra mundial, realizó investigaciones sobre sustancias antibacterianas que… … Enciclopedia Universal
Fleming, Sir Alexander — (1881–1955) British bacteriologist, discoverer of penicillin; shared Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors
Sir Alexander Fleming — Alexander Fleming auf einer Briefmarke Sir Alexander Fleming (* 6. August 1881 in Lochfield bei Darvel, East Ayrshire; † 11. März 1955 in London) war ein schottischer Bakteriologe und Nobelpreisträger und … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sir Alexander Fleming College — (commonly known as Fleming College or simply Fleming) is a British school in Trujillo, northern Perú. Fleming College represents Cambridge University and has an agreement with Markham College in Lima, Perú. Many of the Fleming staff are from… … Wikipedia
Sir Alexander Fleming — noun Scottish bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1881 1955) • Syn: ↑Fleming, ↑Alexander Fleming • Instance Hypernyms: ↑bacteriologist … Useful english dictionary
Fleming — Sir Alexander … Scientists
Alexander — Alexander, Christopher Alexander, islas de Alexander, sir Harold * * * (as used in expressions) William Alexander Abbott Agassiz, Alexander (Emmanuel Rodolphe) Alexander, archipiélago Alexander, Harold (Rupert Leofric George) Alexander, 1 conde… … Enciclopedia Universal
Fleming — Fleming, Alexander Fleming, Ian Fleming, Victor * * * (as used in expressions) Fleming, Ian (Lancaster) Fleming, Peggy (Gale) Fleming, Sir Alexander … Enciclopedia Universal