- Trembley , Abraham
- (1710–1784) Swiss zoologistTrembley was born at Geneva in Switzerland. In the uprising of 1733, however, his father Jean, a leading politician and soldier, was driven from office and into exile. The fall in the family's fortune forced Trembley to seek employment. He moved to Holland in 1733 and served as tutor to the children of various noblemen. While working for Count Bentinck he read theMémoires of René Réaumur, which so stimulated him that he began to observe nature himself. During the next few years he made a number of discoveries which were to astound Europe.At first he worked on parthenogenesis in aphids. Though he achieved some interesting results the work was basically derivative, having already been carried out by Réaumur and Charles Bonnet. At the same time he was studying polyps or, in modern terminology, hydra, of the species Chlorohydra viridissima. They were assumed to be plants but one day in the summer of 1740 Trembley observed them to move their ‘arms’. At first he assumed that the movement was caused by currents in the water. When he swirled the jar around, expecting to see the hydra sway with the vortex, he noted that they suddenly contracted to a point, their tentacles seeming to disappear in the process. As the water calmed, the polyps stretched and once more revealed their tentacles. He was still unsure, however, whether they were plants or animals. There was, he realized, a simple procedure he could carry out to resolve the dilemma. If they were animals, then they would surely die if cut into two; plants would continue to grow.In late 1740 he divided a number of polyps transversely. To his surprise he found that within a few days the two parts had not merely grown, but had developed into two perfect polyps: the tail grew a head, and the head a tail. He published his results in hisMémoires…à l'histoire d'un genre de polypes d'eau douce(1744; Memoirs on the Natural History of Freshwater Polyps). Polyp samples were also dispatched to scholars and institutions throughout Europe. Some, particularly vitalists, found Trembley's work difficult to accept. What happened to the animal's soul? Was that also divided into two? Others saw it as evidence for the oneness of nature, the ‘Great Chain of Being’, with the polyp being the link between plants and animals. Embryologists saw in the polyp conclusive proof against the preformationists who claimed that embryos were minute but preformed individuals. These and other issues were endlessly debated throughout the century, and Trembley's polyps became the best-known invertebrates in Europe.Trembley himself had little more to contribute to science. He left his post with Bentinck in 1747. Thereafter he traveled around Europe, engaged in some kind of diplomatic activity for Britain, for which he received a pension of £300 per annum for life, and wrote a number of books on education, politics, and philosophy.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Trembley, Abraham — ▪ Swiss naturalist born Sept. 3, 1710, Geneva, Switz. died May 12, 1784, Geneva Swiss naturalist, best known for his studies of the freshwater hydra, mainly Chlorohydra viridissima. His extensive systematic experiments foreshadowed modern… … Universalium
Abraham Trembley — Abraham Trembley. Abraham Trembley (* 3 de septiembre de 1710 12 de mayo de 1784) fue un naturalista suizo. Es conocido principalmente por ser el primero en estudiar las hidras y uno de los primeros que desarrolló la zoología experimental. Su… … Wikipedia Español
Abraham Trembley — (3 septembre 1710 – 12 mai 1784) est un naturaliste genevois. Il est principalement connu pour ses études de l hydre … Wikipédia en Français
Abraham Trembley — Abbildung der Hydra (1744) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Trembley — (spr. Trembli), Abraham, geb. 1700 in Genf, war erst Erzieher bei dem englischen Gesandten im Haag, Graf Bentink, widmete sich dann der Naturgeschichte, ging mit dem Herzog von Richmond nach London u. st. 1784 in Genf. Er schr.: Mém. pour servir… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Abraham Trembley — Infobox Scientist name = Abraham Trembley box width = image width =150px caption = Abraham Trembley birth date = 3 September 1710 birth place = death date = 12 May 1784 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = Swiss ethnicity = field … Wikipedia
Abraham (nombre) — Este artículo trata sobre el nombre propio. Para el personaje bíblico, véase Abraham. Abraham El patriarca Abraham Origen Hebreo … Wikipedia Español
Liste de zoologistes — Attention, il n est pas d usage en zoologie d utiliser d abréviation pour les noms des auteurs (contrairement aux usages de la botanique, voir ici). Cette liste ne constitue pas une liste officielle. Nous attirons l attention du lecteur sur son… … Wikipédia en Français
Liste De Zoologistes — Attention, il n est pas d usage en zoologie d utiliser d abréviation pour les noms des auteurs (contrairement aux usages de la botanique, voir ici). Cette liste ne constitue pas une liste officielle. Nous attirons l attention du lecteur sur … Wikipédia en Français
Liste de zoologiste — Liste de zoologistes Attention, il n est pas d usage en zoologie d utiliser d abréviation pour les noms des auteurs (contrairement aux usages de la botanique, voir ici). Cette liste ne constitue pas une liste officielle. Nous attirons l… … Wikipédia en Français