- Bernard , Claude
- (1813–1878) French physiologistBernard, the son of a poor wine grower from St. Julien, began writing plays to earn money but turned to medicine on the advice of a literary critic. His first experiences of medicine were discouraging but, following his appointment as assistant to François Magendie at the Collège de France, he began a period of extremely productive research. He drew attention to the importance of the pancreas in producing secretions for breaking down fat molecules into fatty acid and glycerine and showed that the main processes of digestion occur in the small intestine and not, as was previously thought, in the stomach. In 1856 he discovered glycogen, the starchlike substance in the liver, whose role is to build up a reserve of carbohydrate, which can be broken down to sugars as required; normally the sugar content of the blood remains steady as a result of this interaction. The digestive system, he found, is not just catabolic (breaking down complex molecules into simple ones), but anabolic, producing complex molecules (such as glycogen) from simple ones (such as sugars).Bernard also did valuable work on the vasomotor system, demonstrating that certain nerves control the dilation and constriction of blood vessels; in hot weather blood vessels of the skin expand, releasing surplus heat, contracting during cold to conserve heat. The body is thus able to maintain a constant environment separate from outside influences. Apart from elucidating the role of the red blood corpuscles in transporting oxygen, Bernard's investigation of the action of carbon monoxide on the blood proved that the gas combines with hemoglobin, the effect being to cause oxygen starvation. He also carried out important work on the actions of drugs, such as the opium alkaloids and curare (curarine), on the sympathetic nerves.Bernard's health deteriorated from 1860 and he spent less time in the laboratory. He thus turned to the philosophy of science and in 1865 published the famous Introduction à la médecine expérimentale (An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, 1927). The book discusses the importance of the constancy of the internal environment, refutes the notion of the ‘vital force’ to explain life, and emphasizes the need in planning experiments for a clear hypothesis to be stated, which may then be either proved or disproved. On the strength of this work he was elected to the French Academy in 1869.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Bernard, Claude — Médico francés nacido en 1813. Es considerado el fundador de la medicina experimental y a lo largo de su carrera demostró la participación del páncreas en la digestión de los lípidos y la función glicogénica del hígado, introduciendo el concepto… … Diccionario médico
BERNARD Claude — (1813 1878) (retrato) [véase http://www.iqb.es/historiamedicina/personas/bernard.htm]: Médico y fisiólogo fránces del siglo XIX célebre por sus estudios sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa biografía [véase… … Diccionario médico
Bernard, Claude — • French ecclesiastic (1588 1641) • French physiologist (1813 1878) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Bernard, Claude — born July 12, 1813, Saint Julien, France died Feb. 10, 1878, Paris French physiologist. He taught at several major French institutions and was named a senator in 1869. He discovered the role of the pancreas in digestion, the glycogenic function… … Universalium
Bernard, Claude — (1813 1878) physiologist Regarded as a founder of experimental medicine, Claude Bernard was born in Saint Julien, Rhône. He received his early education in the humanities and only after 1834 enrolled in medical school. Bernard obtained a… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Bernard,Claude — Ber·nard (bĕr närʹ), Claude. 1813 1878. French physiologist noted for his study of the digestive and nervous systems. * * * … Universalium
Bernard, Claude — ► (1813 78) Médico y fisiólogo francés, creador de los modernos métodos de la fisiología de laboratorio. Se le considera el fundador de la medicina experimental y de la fisiología moderna. Demostró la acción del jugo pancreático en la digestión… … Enciclopedia Universal
Bernard, Claude — (France) Watercolorist. Reproductions: [Man using his penis as a golf club]; ink; Kronhausen, 1973: p. 41 [B]. [Nude women whipped before a group of nuns]; 1870; watercolor; Hill, 1996: p. 39 … Dictionary of erotic artists: painters, sculptors, printmakers, graphic designers and illustrators
BERNARD, CLAUDE — a distinguished French physiologist, born at St. Julien; he studied at Paris; was Majendie s assistant and successor in the College of France; discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion of ingested fats, that of the liver… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Bernard Claude Panet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Panet. Bernard Claude Panet Mgr Bernard Claude Panet (1753 1833) fut archevêque de … Wikipédia en Français